Nigerian sprinter Blessing Okagbare has been charged with three offences by the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU).
She was suspended during the Tokyo Olympics after testing positive for a human growth hormone following an out-of-competition test on 19 July.
The 32-year-old later tested positive for another banned substance, recombinant erythropoietin (EPO), which increases red blood cell count.
She has also been charged for not co-operating with the AIU’s investigation.
The AIU alleges Okagbare “failed to comply with a formal requirement to produce relevant documents, records and electronic storage devices” to the investigation.
Okagbare – a rival to Great Britain’s Dina Asher-Smith – had won her 100m heat in Tokyo before being pulled out of the Games.
Okagbare, Olympic long jump silver medallist in Beijing in 2008, denies all the charges.